2015 Vol. 34, No. 1

2015, Vol. 34, No. 01 Content
2015, 34(1): .
2015, Vol. 34, No. 01 Cover
2015, 34(1): .
2015, 34(1): .
Cover Story
The first Sentinel-1 SAR image of a typhoon
LI Xiaofeng
2015, 34(1): 1-2. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0589-8
In this note, we present the first Sentinel-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) typhoon image acquired in the northwest Pacific on October 4, 2014. The eye shape and sea surface wind patterns associated with Typhoon Phanfone are clearly shown in the high-quality SAR image. SAR winds retrieval procedure was given but the actual wind estimates will only be available after the European Space Agency (ESA) releases the official calibration coefficients in order to accurately derive the SAR-measured normalized radar cross section. This study demonstrates the advantage of Sentinel-1 SAR with regards to imaging fine scale typhoon patterns on the sea surface beneath storm clouds. This paper also advocates the use of Sentinel-1 SAR data that is made freely and openly available worldwide for the first time in civilian SAR history.
Winter coastal upwelling off northwest Borneo in the South China Sea
YAN Yunwei, LING Zheng, CHEN Changlin
2015, 34(1): 3-10. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0590-2
Winter coastal upwelling off northwest Borneo in the South China Sea (SCS) is investigated by using satellite data, climatological temperature and salinity fields and reanalysis data. The upwelling forms in december, matures in January, starts to decay in February and almost disappears in March. Both Ekman transport induced by the alongshore winter monsoon and Ekman pumping due to orographic wind stress curl are favorable for the upwelling. Transport estimates demonstrate that the month-to-month variability of Ekman transport and Ekman pumping are both consistent with that of winter coastal upwelling, but Ekman transport is two times larger than Ekman pumping in January and February. Under the influence of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the upwelling shows remarkable interannual variability: during winter of El Niño (La Niña) years, an anticyclonic (a cyclonic) wind anomaly is established in the SCS, which behaves a northeasterly (southwesterly) anomaly and a positive (negative) wind stress curl anomaly off the northwest Borneo coast, enhancing (reducing) the upwelling and causing anomalous surface cooling (warming) and higher (lower) chlorophyll concentration. The sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) associated with ENSO off the northwest Borneo coast has an opposite phase to that off southeast Vietnam, resulting in a SSTA seesaw pattern in the southern SCS in winter.
A parameterization scheme of vertical mixing due to inertial internal wave breaking in the ocean general circulation model
FAN Zhisong, SHANG Zhenqi, ZHANG Shanwu, HU Ruijin, LIU Hailong
2015, 34(1): 11-22. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0591-1
Based on the theoretical spectral model of inertial internal wave breaking (fine structure) proposed previously, in which the effects of the horizontal Coriolis frequency component f-tilde on a potential isopycnal are taken into account, a parameterization scheme of vertical mixing in the stably stratified interior below the surface mixed layer in the ocean general circulation model (OGCM) is put forward preliminarily in this paper. Besides turbulence, the impact of sub-mesoscale oceanic processes (including inertial internal wave breaking product) on oceanic interior mixing is emphasized. We suggest that adding the inertial internal wave breaking mixing scheme (F-scheme for short) put forward in this paper to the turbulence mixing scheme of Canuto et al. (T-scheme for short) in the OGCM, except the region from 15°S to 15°N. The numerical results of F-scheme by using WOA09 data and an OGCM (LICOM, LASG/IAP climate system ocean model) over the global ocean are given. A notable improvement in the simulation of salinity and temperature over the global ocean is attained by using T-scheme adding F-scheme, especially in the mid- and high-latitude regions in the simulation of the intermediate water and deep water. We conjecture that the inertial internal wave breaking mixing and inertial forcing of wind might be one of important mechanisms maintaining the ventilation process. The modeling strength of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) by using T-scheme adding F-scheme may be more reasonable than that by using T-scheme alone, though the physical processes need to be further studied, and the overflow parameterization needs to be incorporated. A shortcoming in F-scheme is that in this paper the error of simulated salinity and temperature by using T-scheme adding F-scheme is larger than that by using T-scheme alone in the subsurface layer.
Spatial and temporal variation characteristics of ocean waves in the South China Sea during the boreal winter
ZHU Geli, LIN Wantao, ZHAO Sen, CAO Yanhua
2015, 34(1): 23-28. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0592-0
The spatial and temporal variation characteristics of the waves in the South China Sea (SCS) in the boreal winter during the period of 1979/1980-2011/2012 have been investigated based on the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts interim (ERA-Interim) reanalysis dataset. The results show that the leading mode of significant wave height anomalies (SWHA) in the SCS exhibits significant interannual variation and a decadal shift around the mid-1990s, and features a basin-wide pattern in the entire SCS with a center located in the west of the Luzon Strait. The decadal change from a weak regime to a strong regime is mainly associated with the enhancement of winter monsoon modulated by the Pacific decadal oscillation (PdO). The interannual variation of the SWHA has a significant negative correlation with the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in the same season and the preceding autumn. For a better understanding of the physical mechanism between the SCS ocean waves and ENSO, further investigation is made by analyzing atmospheric circulation. The impact of the ENSO on the SWHA over the SCS is bridged by the East Asian winter monsoon and Pacific-East Asian teleconnection in the lower troposphere. during the El Niño (La Niña), the anomalous Philippine Sea anticyclone (cyclone) dominates over the Western North Pacific, helps to weaken (enhance) East Asian winter monsoon and then emerges the negative (positive) SWHA in the SCS.
Estimating peak response frequencies in a tidal band in the seas adjacent to China with a numerical model
CUI Xinmei, FANG Guohong, TENG Fei, WU di
2015, 34(1): 29-37. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0593-z
A numerical method is designed to examine the response properties of real sea areas to open ocean forcing. The application of this method to modeling the China's adjacent seas shows that the Bohai Sea has a highest peak response frequency (PRF) of 1.52 d-1; the northern Yellow Sea has a PRF of 1.69 d-1; the Gyeonggi Bay has a high amplitude gain plateau in the frequency band roughly from 1.7 to 2.7 d-1; the Yellow Sea (including the Gyeonggi Bay), the East China Sea shelf and the Taiwan Strait have a common high amplitude gain band with frequencies around 1.76 to 1.78 d-1 and are shown to be a system that responds to the open ocean forcing in favor of amplifying the waves with frequencies in this band; the Beibu Gulf, the Gulf of Thailand and the South China Sea deep basin have PRFs of 0.91, 1.01 and 0.98 d-1 respectively. In addition, the East China Sea has a Poincare mode PRF of 3.91 d-1. The PRFs of the Bohai Sea, the northern Yellow Sea, the Beibu Gulf and the South China Sea can be explained by a classical quarter (half for the Bohai Sea) wavelength resonance theory. The results show that further investigations are needed for the response dynamics of the Yellow Sea-East China Sea-Taiwan Strait system, the East China Sea Poincare mode, the Taiwan Strait, and the Gulf of Thailand.
Features of near-inertial motions observed on the northern South China Sea shelf during the passage of two typhoons
CHEN Shengli, HU Jianyu, POLTON Jeff A.
2015, 34(1): 38-43. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0594-y
Features of near-inertial motions on the shelf (60 m deep) of the northern South China Sea were observed under the passage of two typhoons during the summer of 2009. There are two peaks in spectra at both sub-inertial and super-inertial frequencies. The super-inertial energy maximizes near the surface, while the sub-inertial energy maximizes at a deeper layer of 15 m. The sub-inertial shift of frequency is induced by the negative background vorticity. The super-inertial shift is probably attributed to the near-inertial wave propagating from higher latitudes. The near-inertial currents exhibit a two-layer pattern being separated at mid-depth (25-30 m), with the phase in the upper layer being nearly opposite to that in the lower layer. The vertical propagation of phase implies that the near-inertial energy is not dominantly downward. The upward flux of the near-inertial energy is more evident at the surface layer (<17 m). There exist two boundaries at 17 and 40 m, where the near-inertial energy is reflected upward and downward. The near-inertial motion is intermittent and can reach a peak of as much as 30 cm/s. The passage of Typhoon Nangka generates an intensive near-inertial event, but Typhoon Linfa does not. This difference is attributed to the relative mooring locations, which is on the right hand side of Nangka's path (leading to a wind pattern rotating clockwise with time) and is on the left hand side of Linfa's path (leading to a wind pattern rotating anti-clockwise with time).
The numerical investigation of seasonal variation of the cold water mass in the Beibu Gulf and its mechanisms
CHEN Zhenhua, QIAO Fangli, XIA Changshui, WANG Gang
2015, 34(1): 44-54. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0595-x
A wave-tide-circulation coupled model based on the Princeton Ocean Model is established to explore the seasonal variation of the cold water mass in the Beibu Gulf and its mechanisms. The results show that the cold water mass starts forming in March, reaches the maximum strength during June and July, and fades away since October. Strong mixing in winter transports the cold water from sea surface to bottom. The cold water mass remains in the bottom layer as the thermocline strengthens during spring, except for the shallow water where the themocline is broken by strong tidal mixing, which gradually separate the cold water mass from its surrounding warm water. Further analysis on the ocean current and stream function confirms that the cold water mass in the Beibu Gulf is locally developed, with an anticlockwise circulation caused by a strong temperature gradient. Sensitivity experiments reveal that the cold water mass is controlled by the sea surface heat flux, while the terrain and tidal mixing also play important roles.
The El Niño-Southern Oscillation cycle simulated by the climate system model of Chinese Academy of Sciences
SU Tonghua, XUE Feng, SUN Hongchuan, ZHOU Guangqing
2015, 34(1): 55-65. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0596-9
On the basis of more than 200-year control run, the performance of the climate system model of Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS-ESM-C) in simulating the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle is evaluated, including the onset, development and decay of the ENSO. It is shown that, the model can reasonably simulate the annual cycle and interannual variability of sea surface temperature (SST) in the tropical Pacific, as well as the seasonal phase-locking of the ENSO. The model also captures two prerequisites for the El Niño onset, i.e., a westerly anomaly and a warm SST anomaly in the equatorial western Pacific. Owing to too strong forcing from an extratropical meridional wind, however, the westerly anomaly in this region is largely overestimated. Moreover, the simulated thermocline is much shallower with a weaker slope. As a result, the warm SST anomaly from the western Pacific propagates eastward more quickly, leading to a faster development of an El Niño. during the decay stage, owing to a stronger El Niño in the model, the secondary Gill-type response of the tropical atmosphere to the eastern Pacific warming is much stronger, thereby resulting in a persistent easterly anomaly in the western Pacific. Meanwhile, a cold anomaly in the warm pool appears as a result of a lifted thermocline via Ekman pumping. Finally, an El Niño decays into a La Niña through their interactions. In addition, the shorter period and larger amplitude of the ENSO in the model can be attributed to a shallower thermocline in the equatorial Pacific, which speeds up the zonal redistribution of a heat content in the upper ocean.
The spatiotemporal variation of the wind-induced near-inertial energy flux in the mixed layer of the South China Sea
LI Juan, LIU Junliang, CAI Shuqun, PAN Jiayi
2015, 34(1): 66-72. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0597-8
On the basis of the QSCAT/NCEP blended wind data and simple ocean data assimilation (SOdA), the wind-induced near-inertial energy flux (NIEF) in the mixed layer of the South China Sea (SCS) is estimated by a slab model, and the model results are verified by observational data near the Xisha Islands in the SCS. Then, the spatial and temporal variations of the NIEF in the SCS are analyzed. It is found that, the monthly mean NIEF exhibits obvious spatial and temporal variabilities, i.e., it is large west of Luzon Island all the year, east of the Indo-China Peninsula all the year except in spring, and in the northern SCS from May to September. The large monthly mean NIEF in the first two zones may be affected by the large local wind stress curl whilst that in the last zone is probably due to the shallow mixed layer depth. Moreover, the monthly mean NIEF is relatively large in summer and autumn due to the passage of typhoons. The spatial mean NIEF in the mixed layer of the SCS is estimated to be about 1.25 mW/m2 and the total wind energy input from wind is approximately 4.4 GW. Furthermore, the interannual variability of the spatial monthly mean NIEF and the Niño3.4 index are negatively correlated.
Wave height measurement in the Taiwan Strait with a portable high frequency surface wave radar
ZHOU Hao, ROARTY Hugh, WEN Biyang
2015, 34(1): 73-78. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0599-6
As an important equipment for sea state remote sensing, high frequency surface wave radar (HFSWR) has received more and more attention. The conventional method for wave height inversion is based on the ratio of the integration of the second-order spectral continuum to that of the first-order region, where the strong external noise and the incorrect delineation of the first- and second-order doppler spectral regions due to spectral aliasing are two major sources of errors in the wave height. To account for these factors, two more indices are introduced to the wave height estimation, i.e., the ratio of the maximum power of the second-order continuum to that of the Bragg spectral region (RSCB) and the ratio of the power of the second harmonic peak to that of the Bragg peak (RSHB). Both indices also have a strong correlation with the underlying wave height. On the basis of all these indices an empirical model is proposed to estimate the wave height. This method has been used in a three-months long experiment of the ocean state measuring and analyzing radar, type S (OSMAR-S), which is a portable HFSWR with compact cross-loop/monopole receive antennas developed by Wuhan University since 2006. during the experiment in the Taiwan Strait, the significant wave height varied from 0 to 5 m. The significant wave heights estimated by the OSMAR-S correlate well with the data provided by the Oceanweather Inc. for comparison, with a correlation coefficient of 0.74 and a root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.77 m. The proposed method has made an effective improvement to the wave height estimation and thus a further step toward operational use of the OSMAR-S in the wave height extraction.
Wave effects on the retrieved wind field from the advanced scatterometer (ASCAT)
REN Lin, YANG Jingsong, ZHENG Gang, WANG Juan, CHEN Peng
2015, 34(1): 79-84. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0600-4
To improve retrieval accuracy, this paper studies wave effects on retrieved wind field from a scatterometer. First, the advanced scatterometer (ASCAT) data and buoy data of the National data Buoy Center (NdBC) are collocated. Buoy wind speed is converted into neutral wind at 10 m height. Then, ASCAT data are compared with the buoy data for the wind speed and direction. Subsequently, the errors between the ASCAT and the buoy wind as a function of each wave parameter are used to analyze the wave effects. Wave parameters include dominant wave period (dpd), significant wave height (swh), average wave period (apd) and the angle between the dominant wave direction (dwd) and the wind direction. Collocated data are divided into sub-datasets according to the different intervals of each wave parameter. A root mean square error (RMSE) for the wind speed and a mean absolute error (MAE) for the wind direction are calculated from the sub-datasets, which are considered as the function of wave parameters. Finally, optimal wave conditions on wind retrieved from the ASCAT are determined based on the error analyses. The results show the ocean wave parameters have correlative relationships with the RMSE of the retrieved wind speed and the MAE of the retrieved wind direction. The optimal wave conditions are presented in terms of dpd, swh, apd and angle.
Targets detecting in the ocean using the cross-polarized channels of fully polarimetric SAR data
WANG Yunhua, LIU Xiaoyan, LI Huimin, ZHANG Yanmin
2015, 34(1): 85-93. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0601-3
Azimuth ambiguities (ghost targets) discrimination is of great interest with the development of a synthetic aperture radar (SAR). And the azimuth ambiguities are often mistaken as actual targets and cause false alarms. For actual targets, HV channel signals acquired by a fully polarimetric SAR are approximately equal to a VH channel in magnitude and phase, i.e., the reciprocity theorem applies, but shifted in phase about ±π for the first-order azimuth ambiguities. Exploiting this physical behavior, the real part of the product of the two cross-polarized channels, i.e. (SHVSVH*), hereafter called A12r, is employed as a new parameter for a target detection at sea. Compared with other parameters, the contrast of A12r image between a target and the surrounding sea surface will be obviously increased when A12r image is processed by mean filtering algorithm. Here, in order to detect target with constant false-alarm rates (CFARs), an analytical expression for the probability density function (pdf) of A12r is derived based on the complex Wishart-distribution. Because a value of A12r is greater/less than 0 for real target/its azimuth ambiguities, the first-order azimuth ambiguities can be completely removed by this A12r-based CFAR technology. Experiments accomplished over C-band RAdARSAT-2 fully polarimetric imageries confirm the validity.
The brightness reversal of submarine sand waves in "HJ-1A/B" CCd sun glitter images
HE Xiekai, CHEN Ninghua, ZHANG Huaguo, GUAN Weibing
2015, 34(1): 94-99. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0602-2
The brightness reversal of submarine sand waves appearing in the small satellite constellation for environment and disaster monitoring and forecasting ("HJ-1A/B") CCd sun glitter images can affect the observation and depth inversion of sand wave topography. The simulations of the normalized sun glitter radiance on the submarine sand waves confirm that the reversal would happen at a specific sensor viewing angle, defined as the critical angle. The difference between the calculated critical angle position and the reversal position in the image is about 1', which is excellent in agreement. Both the simulation and actual image show that sand wave crests would be indistinct at the reversal position, which may cause problems when using these sun glitter images to analyze spatial characteristics and migration of sand waves. When using the sun glitter image to obtain the depth inversion, one should take the advantage of image properties of sand waves and choose the location in between the reversal position and the brightest position. It is also necessary to pay attention to the brightness reversal when using "HJ-1A/B" CCd images to analyze other oceanic features, such as internal waves, oil slicks, eddies, and ship wakes.
Marine Geology
Features and dynamic mechanisms of Cenozoic tectonic migration and its impact on the hydrocarbon accumulation in the northern South China Sea
YIN Zhengxin, CAI Zhourong, WAN Zhifeng, LYU Baofeng
2015, 34(1): 100-109. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0603-1
The northern continental margin of the South China Sea (SCS) is located within the tectonic system of Southeast Asia, an area with a great deal of tectonic migration due to the regional tectonic movements. The available geological and geophysical data of the area are comprehensively analyzed in order to demonstrate the typical migration patterns of the Cenozoic tectonics in the northern SCS caused by the episodes of the Cenozoic tectonic movement. Furthermore, the lateral variation characteristics of the strata and the different evolution patterns of the main basins' features are assessed. It primarily focus on: (1) the Cenozoic episodic rifting from north to south in the continental margin of the northern SCS; (2) the rifting and depression time of the main basins progressively become younger as one goes from north to south, signifying that the migration of both the tectonics and the sediments within the northern SCS travelled from north to south during the Cenozoic; and (3) the lateral tectonic migration on the direction of EW is not regular in total, but in some local areas the trending of the tectonic migration is from west to east. The analysis of the tectonic migration features of the northern SCS, in combination with the regional tectonic evolution background, indicates that the observed remote lagging effect, resulted from the India-Eurasia plate collision, is the main dynamic mechanism involved in the tectonic migration within the northern SCS. The tectonic migration has significant influence on both the organization of petroleum deposits and on the hydrocarbon accumulation within the basins in the northern SCS; comprehensive understanding of this dynamic system is of great reference value in predicting the hydrocarbon accumulation and has the potential to have an enormous impact in discovering new deep reservoirs for the future oil-gas exploration.
Marine Biology
Cloning, characterization, and expression of a novel member of proteasomal subunits gene in turbot, Scophthalmus maximus
ZHANG Bo, WANG Xianli, SONG Wenping, ZHENG debin, MA Chao, XIAO Guangxia, Jia Lei
2015, 34(1): 110-118. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0586-y
The proteasome is a large, polymeric protease complex responsible for the degradation of intracellular proteins and generation of peptides that bind to class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. This study identified a new member of proteasomal subunits in turbots (Scophthalmus maximus). The fulllength cdNA sequence of turbot proteasomal subunit was obtained. Sequence analysis indicated that its primary structure is highly similar to that of LMP7 from other vertebrates. The relationship between the turbot LMP7 expression and immune responses to pathogen infection was reported. Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction showed that LMP7 was expressed differently in various tissues, with higher expression in the spleen, liver, muscle, and skin. The LMP7 expression was the highest at 96 h after challenge with lymphocyctis disease virus (LCdV) and at 12 h after challenge with Vibrio anguillarum in the turbot liver, kidney, and spleen. Furthermore, the LMP7 expression distinctly increased in turbot kidney cells at 24 h after challenge with V.anguillarum and at 96 h after challenge with LCdV. These results indicate that the turbot LMP7 protein participates in immune responses and may play a significant role in the immune process.
Ocean Engineering
A numerical study on the circulation and tide in a zigzag bay
YU Huaming, WANG Zhaohua, KUANG Liang, WANG Lu, BAO Xianwen, WU He, WANG Xin, DENG Xiaodong
2015, 34(1): 119-128. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0604-0
The Shacheng Bay (SCB) is one of the most complex coastal bays in southeast China and due to the fact of complicated geometry and dynamic coastal processes, it is considered as a challenging area for the numerical simulation of its hydrodynamic characteristics. The most advanced finite volume ocean model, finite- volume coastal ocean model (FVCOM), has adopted to simulate this hydrodynamic system, where tidal currents, tidal residual current and dye diffusion processes were studied and analyzed quantitatively. The validation of this numerical model matches well with various observation data, including elevation and current data. The misfit of a tidal elevation has a relative standard error of 3.66% and 4.67% for M2 and S2 tide components. The current validation shows a good match with an average error of 10 cm/s and 8° in the speed major axis and its direction respectively between the simulation and the measurement. This proves the robustness and reliability of this model. It is also found that the cape effect is significant and important in this system. The dye diffusion simulations show a 53 d flushing period for the whole inner bay waterbody. The results are of its first kind for understanding the hydrodynamic system in the SCB and they can provide helpful and trustful scientific information for others.
The uniaxial compressive strength of the Arctic summer sea ice
HAN Hongwei, LI Zhijun, HUANG Wenfeng, LU Peng, LEI Ruibo
2015, 34(1): 129-136. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0598-7
The results on the uniaxial compressive strength of Arctic summer sea ice are presented based on the samples collected during the fifth Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition in 2012 (CHINARE-2012). Experimental studies were carried out at different testing temperatures (-3, -6 and -9℃), and vertical samples were loaded at stress rates ranging from 0.001 to 1 MPa/s. The temperature, density, and salinity of the ice were measured to calculate the total porosity of the ice. In order to study the effects of the total porosity and the density on the uniaxial compressive strength, the measured strengths for a narrow range of stress rates from 0.01 to 0.03 MPa/s were analyzed. The results show that the uniaxial compressive strength decreases linearly with increasing total porosity, and when the density was lower than 0.86 g/cm3, the uniaxial compressive strength increases in a power-law manner with density. The uniaxial compressive behavior of the Arctic summer sea ice is sensitive to the loading rate, and the peak uniaxial compressive strength is reached in the brittle-ductile transition range. The dependence of the strength on the temperature shows that the calculated average strength in the brittle-ductile transition range, which was considered as the peak uniaxial compressive strength, increases steadily in the temperature range from -3 to -9℃.
Intratidal and neap-spring variations of suspended sediment concentrations and sediment transport processes in the North Branch of the Changjiang Estuary
LI Zhanhai, LI Michael Z, DAI Zhijun, ZHAO Fangfang, LI Jiufa
2015, 34(1): 137-147. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0605-z
Profiles of tidal current and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) were measured in the North Branch of the Changjiang Estuary from neap tide to spring tide in April 2010. The measurement data were analyzed to determine the characteristics of intratidal and neap-spring variations of SSC and suspended sediment transport. Modulated by tidal range and current speed, the tidal mean SSC increased from 0.5 kg/m3 in neap tide to 3.5 kg/m3 in spring tide. The intratidal variation of the depth-mean SSC can be summarized into three types: V-shape variation in neap tide, M-shape and mixed M-V shape variation in medium and spring tides. The occurrence of these variation types is controlled by the relative intensity and interaction of resuspension, settling and impact of water exchange from the rise and fall of tide. In neap tide the V-shape variation is mainly due to the dominant effect of the water exchange from the rise and fall of tide. during medium and spring tides, resuspension and settling processes become dominant. The interactions of these processes, together with the sustained high ebb current and shorter duration of low-tide slack, are responsible for the M-shape and M-V shape SSC variation. Weakly consolidated mud and high current speed cause significant resuspension and remarkable flood and ebb SSC peaks. Settling occurs at the slack water periods to cause SSC troughs and formation of a thin fluff layer on the bed. Fluxes of water and suspended sediment averaged over the neap-spring cycle are all seawards, but the magnitude and direction of tidal net sediment flux is highly variable.
The energy budget under the influence of topography in the Zhujiang River Estuary in China
LIU Huan, WU Chaoyu, WU Yaju
2015, 34(1): 148-158. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0606-y
The Zhujiang River (Pearl River) Estuary (ZRE) is a very complicated and large-scale estuarine system in China. It consists of two parts: the river networks and the estuarine bays. Not only is the network system one of the most complicated in the world, but also each estuarine bay has a very special morphodynamic feature due to the geological settings. Morphological boundary conditions have direct effects on the energy dissipation and balance. On the basis of a three-dimensional (3-d) barotropic model whose domain includes the river networks and the estuarine bays, the energy budget is discussed under the influence of topography in the ZRE. The elevation and discharge of this model are validated by the observations collected in July 1999 and February 2001. The results show that (1) the source of energy in the ZRE is mainly generated by tides and river runoffs, which have an obvious seasonal change, and (2) there are some typical hotspots where the energy dissipation is 1-2 orders higher than those in the immediate upstream and downstream sections in the ZRE. These hotspots are linked with the small-scale dynamic structures (SSdS) and morphological units. On the basis of the characteristics of the morphology and the energy dissipation, the hotspots can be categorized into three types: the outlet of the ZRE, the meandering river, the branch and junction.
Research Notes
3-d observations of a red tide event in the offshore water along the western Guangdong coast
XIE Lingling, CHEN Qingxiang, HU Jianyu, ZHANG Shuwen, YI Xiaofei, CHEN Fajin, DENG Rui, DENG Xiaodong, WANG Jing, QI Yiquan
2015, 34(1): 159-161. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0607-x
From November 24 to 26, 2014, a red tide event occurred in the offshore water off the Hailing Island located at the western Guangdong coast. The red tide appeared as pink strips distributed within 3 km in the offshore water and extended for about 10 km along the shoreline. during the flood tide, the pink seawater rushed to the beach with breaking waves, forming foam strips on the beach. Guangdong Province Key Laboratory for Coastal Ocean Variation and disaster Prediction Technologies, Guangdong Ocean University, emergently responded to the event and organized three-dimensional observations from the air, onboard and on beach. The preliminary analyses of the cruise data and water samples indicate that the event was induced by nontoxic Noctiluca scintillans, of which the concentration reaches as high as 4 200 cells/L near the surface and 2 600 cells/L at the bottom.