## Home  >  Volume 36, Issue 6, 2017

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2017, 36(6): 1-11. doi: 10.1007/s13131-017-1035-x
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This paper reviews the current achievements of the China Argo project. It considers aspects of both the construction of the Argo observing array, float technology, and the quality control and sharing of its data. The developments of associated data products and data applications for use in the fields of ocean, atmosphere, and climate research are discussed, particularly those related to tropical cyclones (typhoons), ocean circulation, mesoscale eddies, turbulence, oceanic heat/salt storage and transportation, water masses, and operational oceanic/atmospheric/climatic forecasts and predictions. Finally, the challenges and opportunities involved in the long-term maintenance and sustained development of the China Argo ocean observation network are outlined. Discussion also focuses on the necessity for increasing the number of floats in the Indian Ocean and for expanding the regional Argo observation network in the South China Sea, together with the importance of promoting the use of Argo data by the maritime countries of Southeast Asia and India.
2017, 36(6): 12-22. doi: 10.1007/s13131-017-0998-y
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Methane seepage is the signal of the deep hydrocarbon reservoir. The determination of seepage is significant to the exploration of petroleum, gas and gas hydrate. The seepage habits microbial and macrofaunal life which is fueled by the hydrocarbons, the metabolic byproducts facilitate the precipitation of authigenic minerals. The study of methane seepage is also important to understand the oceanographic condition and local ecosystem. The seepage could be active or quiescent at different times. The geophysical surveys and the geochemical determinations reveal the existence of seepage. Among these methods, only geochemical determination could expose message of the dormant seepages. The active seepage demonstrates high porewater methane concentration with rapid SO42– depleted, low H2S and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), higher rates of sulfate reduction (SR) and anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). The quiescent seepage typically develops authigenic carbonates with specific biomarkers, with extremely depleted 13C in gas, DIC and carbonates and with enriched 34S sulfate and depleted 34S pyrite. The origin of methane, minerals precipitation, the scenario of seepage and the possible method of immigration could be determined by the integration of solutes concentration, mineral composition and isotopic fractionation of carbon, sulfur. Numerical models with the integrated results provide useful insight into the nature and intensity of methane seepage occurring in the sediment and paleo-oceanographic conditions. Unfortunately, the intensive investigation of a specific area with dormant seep is still limit. Most seepage and modeling studies are site-specific and little attempt has been made to extrapolate the results to larger scales. Further research is thus needed to foster our understanding of the methane seepage.
2017, 36(6): 23-33. doi: 10.1007/s13131-016-0965-z
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Algal blooms caused by Prorocentrum donghaiense occurred frequently in the East China Sea (ECS) during spring in recent years. In this study, a coupled biophysical model was used to hindcast a massive P. donghaiense bloom that occurred in 2005 and to determine the factors influencing bloom initiation and development. The model comprised the Regional Ocean Modeling System tailored for the ECS that utilized a multi-nested configuration and a population dynamics model for P. donghaiense. Comparisons between simulations and observations revealed that the biological model is capable of reproducing the characteristics of P. donghaiense growth under different irradiances and phosphorus limitation scenarios. The variation of intracellular phosphorus and the effects of P. donghaiense on ambient nutrients conditions were also reproduced. The biophysical model hindcasted the hydrodynamics and spatiotemporal distributions of the P. donghaiense bloom reasonably well. Bloom development was consistent with observations reported in earlier studies. The results demonstrate the capability of the model in capturing subsurface incubation during bloom initiation. Then model’s hindcast solutions were further used to diagnose the factors controlling the vertical distribution. Phosphate appeared to be one of the factors controlling the subsurface incubation, whereas surface wind fields played an important role in determining P. donghaiense distribution. The results highlight the importance of nutrient-limitation as a mechanism in the formation of P. donghaiense subsurface layers and the dispersing of P. donghaiense blooms. This coupled biophysical model should be improved and used to investigate P. donghaiense blooms occurring in different scenarios.
2017, 36(6): 34-46. doi: 10.1007/s13131-017-1004-4
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Ferromanganese crusts and nodules are important submarine mineral resources that contain various metal elements with significant economic value. In this study, polymetallic crusts and nodules obtained from the South China Sea (SCS) were determined by using X-ray power diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy (RS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to systematically investigate and analyze the mineralogical and spectral characteristics of the Fe-Mn minerals. XRD measurements revealed that the SCS polymetallic crusts and nodules were composed of vernadite, quartz, and plagioclase. The nodules also contained todorokite. The Fe-phase minerals of the SCS crusts and nodules were composed of amorphous Fe oxide/hydroxide, and the Mn- and Fe-phases minerals exhibited relatively poor degrees of crystallization. FTIR results showed that the Fe-Mn minerals in the crusts and nodules included a large number of surface hydroxyl groups. These surface hydroxyl groups contained protons that could provide reactive sites for complexation of ore-forming elements in seawater. XPS results indicated that the surfaces of the Fe-Mn minerals mainly contained Fe, Mn, and O. Fe was present in the trivalent oxidation state, while Mn, which may contain several bivalent oxidation state, was present in the tetravalent and trivalent oxidation states. The SCS polymetallic crusts and nodules were compared with Pacific seamount crusts, and results showed that the surface hydroxyl (-OH) groups of the SCS crusts and nodules numbered more than the lattice oxygen (O2-). But the lattice oxygen of Pacific seamount crusts numbered more than the surface hydroxyl groups. This characteristic indicated that the degree of crystallization of Fe-Mn minerals from the Pacific Ocean was higher than that of minerals from the South China Sea. Comprehensive studies showed that ore-forming elements in the interface between seawater and the Fe-Mn minerals in the submarine ferromanganese crusts and nodules employed the following enrichment mechanisms: (1) the metal ion complexed with the surface hydroxyl of Fe-Mn minerals to form hydroxyl complexes, which were connected by coordination bonds or stable inner-sphere complexes that exchanged protons on the mineral surfaces; (2) the charged surfaces of the minerals and metal cations formed outer-sphere complexes, which made up the electrostatic double layer, through electrostatic adsorption; and (3) the metal cations isomorphously exchanged the Mn and Fe ions of the mineral lattice structure.
2017, 36(6): 47-51. doi: 10.1007/s13131-017-1034-y
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Bayesian and restricted maximum likelihood (REML) approaches were used to estimate the genetic parameters in a cultured turbot Scophthalmus maximus stock. The data set consisted of harvest body weight from 2 462 progenies (17 months old) from 28 families that were produced through artificial insemination using 39 parent fish. An animal model was applied to partition each weight value into a fixed effect, an additive genetic effect, and a residual effect. The average body weight of each family, which was measured at 110 days post-hatching, was considered as a covariate. For Bayesian analysis, heritability and breeding values were estimated using both the posterior mean and mode from the joint posterior conditional distribution. The results revealed that for additive genetic variance, the posterior mean estimate ( \begin{document}$\sigma _a^2$\end{document} =9 320) was highest but with the smallest residual variance, REML estimates ( \begin{document}$\sigma _a^2$\end{document} =8 088) came second and the posterior mode estimate ( \begin{document}$\sigma _a^2$\end{document} =7 849) was lowest. The corresponding three heritability estimates followed the same trend as additive genetic variance and they were all high. The Pearson correlations between each pair of the three estimates of breeding values were all high, particularly that between the posterior mean and REML estimates (0.996 9). These results reveal that the differences between Bayesian and REML methods in terms of estimation of heritability and breeding values were small. This study provides another feasible method of genetic parameter estimation in selective breeding programs of turbot.
2017, 36(6): 52-60. doi: 10.1007/s13131-017-0983-5
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Cathepsin L gene is a member of the cysteine proteinase gene group. In this study Cathepsin L gene was isolated from Kuruma shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus (Mj-Cathepsin L) and the full-length DNA sequence was 1 963 bp. Mj-Cathepsin L protein showed high homologies with other Cathepsin L proteins documented in vertebrates, mollusks and other crustaceans. Expression analysis of Mj-Cathepsin L gene in different tissues revealed that it was predominant in hepatopancreas. During early ontogenetic development stages Mj-Cathepsin L showed a development-regulated expression, and the Mj-Cathepsin L showed a molting stage-regulated expression during the five molting stages, inferring its role in the ontogenic development of M. japonicus. Two kinds of forms of Mj-Cathepsin L protein: pro-Cathepsin L and Cathepsin L were measured in hepatopancreas, stomach and intestine by Western Blotting.
2017, 36(6): 61-67. doi: 10.1007/s13131-017-1052-9
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Lectins are sugar-specific binding proteins or glycoproteins that play important physiological roles in cellular recognition and regulation. And they are also valuable in medicine and pharmacy. Tubeworm is the representative species around the hydrothermal vent in the deep sea. They have developed unique mechanisms to adapt to the harsh environment. In this study, a 1 092 bp cDNA, designed as rpgal, was first cloned and characterized from the tubeworm Ridgeia piscesae. Sequence analysis showed that RPGAL had low homology with the known galectin. And it had two homologous carbohydrate-recognition domains, which is the characteristic of the tandem-repeat type galectins. The RPGAL was successfully recombinant expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Analysis of biological activity revealed that RPGAL was metal ion independent and it could agglutinate all the vertebrate erythrocytes tested. It was stable at 10–50°C and pH 5–10. And the hemagglutinating activity of RPGAL was strongly inhibited by D-Lactose and lipopolysaccharide. Although RPGAL had no effect on the microorganisms tested, it showed anti-tumor activity towards HeLa cells and HT1080 cells, which was accomplished by apoptosis. The study demonstrated that RPGAL was a novel galectin and provided a potential candidate for therapy of anti-tumor.
2017, 36(6): 68-79. doi: 10.1007/s13131-017-0974-6
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Copepods are a key trophic link between primary producers and predatory animals at higher trophic levels in the marine ecosystem. Knowledge of the in situ composition of the copepod diet is critical for the accurate evaluation of trophic relationships and energy transfer in marine food webs. In this study, we applied a PCR-based cloning technique developed previously to investigate the in situ diet of Calanus sinicus, an ecologically important large-sized calanoid copepod that dominates in the shelf waters around China, Japan and Korea. Analyses of the 18S rDNA sequences obtained from the copepod diet revealed the diverse food composition of C. sinicus from two stations (Y19 in the South Yellow Sea and B49 in the Bohai Sea). A total of 43 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were detected, which belonged to 13 diverse lineages: Bacillariophyta, Dinoflagellata, Dictyochophyceae, Chrysophyta, Katablepharidophyta, Pelagophyceae, Apusozoa, Hydrozoa, Ctenophora, Echinodermata, Tunicata, Chaetognatha and marine fungi. The results indicate that during an algae bloom, C. sinicus can graze on the bloom causative species. When the abundance of phytoplankton in ambient water is relatively low, C. sinicus can choose eggs, larvae, or organic particles/detritus of various metazoans, especially hydrozoans and ctenophores, as alternative food sources. Our result suggests that C. sinicus is an omnivorous species, and its prey choice may depend on the food availability in the ambient waters.
2017, 36(6): 80-88. doi: 10.1007/s13131-017-1048-5
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The effects of nitrogen (N) addition on microbial biomass, bacterial abundance, and community composition in sediment colonized by Suaeda heteroptera were examined by chloroform fumigation extraction method, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) in a salt marsh located in Shuangtai Estuary, China. The sediment samples were collected from plots treated with different amounts of a single N fertilizer (urea supplied at 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 g/kg (nitrogen content in sediment) and different forms of N fertilizers (urea, (NH4)2SO4, and NH4NO3, each supplied at 0.2 g/kg (calculated by nitrogen). The fertilizers were applied 1–4 times during the plant-growing season in May, July, August, and September of 2013. Untreated plots were included as a control. The results showed that both the amount and form of N positively influenced microbial biomass carbon, microbial biomass nitrogen, and bacterial abundance. The DGGE profiles revealed that the bacterial community composition was also affected by the amount and form of N. Thus, our findings indicate that short-term N amendment increases microbial biomass and bacterial abundance, and alters the structure of bacterial community.
2017, 36(6): 89-94. doi: 10.1007/s13131-017-1045-8
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Prevalence of bacterial species involved in biomineralization of manganese on titanium (Ti) surfaces in marine environment was revealed in this research work. This study involves one year sea water exposure of Ti and their periodical biofilm characterization was carried out to quantify the manganese oxidizing bacterial (MOB) presence in the biofilm formed on titanium surfaces. The total viable count study of Ti coupons exposed to sea water for one year resulted in 60% of the MOB in overall biofilm population. The biochemical characterization of MOB isolates were performed for the genus level identification of the seven bacterial isolates. Further, the seven strains were subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Evolutionary analysis was performed using MEGA 7 to obtain closely related strains within the groups. The manganese oxidizing ability of the bacterial isolates were determined with Leucoberbelin Blue Assay (LBB) and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy studies (AAS). The results show that among the isolated marine MOB species, Bacillus sp. and Leptothrix sp. have the maximum Mn oxidizing property. The microtitre plate assay was performed to determine the biofilm forming ability of the isolated marine MOB species. All the results have confirmed the prevalence of Bacillus sp. among the biofilm colonizers on Ti surfaces when exposed in sea water.
2017, 36(6): 95-103. doi: 10.1007/s13131-017-1046-7
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To understand the distribution of aluminum (Al) under the influence of mesocale eddies in the western South China Sea (SCS), sea level anomaly, geostrophic current, environmental parameters and reactive Al were investigated in the western SCS in August 2013. The highest reactive Al concentration ((180±64) nmol/L) was observed in the surface waters, indicating a substantial atmospheric input. Vertically, the reactive Al decreased from the surface high concentration to the subsurface minima at the depth of chlorophyll a (Chl a) maxima and then increased again with depth at most of the stations. The average concentration of reactive Al in the upper 100 m water column was significantly lower in the cyclonic eddy ((137±6) nmol/L) as compared with that in the non-eddy waters ((180±21) nmol/L). By contrast, the average concentrations of Chl a and silicate in the upper 100 m water column were higher in the cyclonic eddy and lower in the anticyclonic eddy. There was a significant negative correlation between the average concentrations of reactive Al and Chl a in the upper 100 m water column. The vertical distribution of reactive Al and the negative correlation between reactive Al and Chl a both suggest that the reactive Al in the upper water column was significantly influenced by biological removal processes. Our results indicate that mesoscale eddies could regulate the distribution of reactive Al by influencing the primary production and phytoplankton community structure in the western SCS.
2017, 36(6): 104-111. doi: 10.1007/s13131-017-1006-2
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A three-dimensional time-domain potential flow model with second-order nonlinearity was applied to simulate the wave resonance in a gap between two side-by-side rectangular barges. In the model, the velocity potential was decomposed into the incident potential and unknown scattered potential which was obtained by solving the boundary integral equation. The fourth-order predict-correct method was applied to enforce the free surface conditions in the time integration. The influence of the wave direction on the first and second-order gap surface elevations was investigated. The results reveal that the incident wave angle does not affect the resonant wave frequency and the maximum surface elevation at resonance always occurs at the middle location along the gap. However, the corresponding maximum wave surface elevation at resonance varies with the incident wave angle. The location of the maximum wave elevation shifts either upstream or downstream along the gap, depending on the relative magnitude of incident wave frequency to the resonant frequency.
2017, 36(6): 112-121. doi: 10.1007/s13131-017-1047-8
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Satellite-derived phytoplankton pigment absorption (aph) has been used as a key predictor of phytoplankton photosynthetic efficiency to estimate global ocean net primary production (NPP). In this study, an aph-based NPP model (AbPM) with four input parameters including the photosynthetically available radiation (PAR), diffuse attenuation at 490 nm (Kd(490)), euphotic zone depth (Zeu) and the phytoplankton pigment absorption coefficient (aph) is compared with the chlorophyll-based model and carbon-based model. It is found that the AbPM has significant advantages on the ocean NPP estimation compared with the chlorophyll-based model and carbon-based model. For example, AbPM greatly outperformed the other two models at most monitoring sites and had the best accuracy, including the smallest values of RMSD and bias for the NPP estimate, and the best correlation between the observations and the modeled NPPs. In order to ensure the robustness of the model, the uncertainty in NPP estimates of the AbPM was assessed using a Monte Carlo simulation. At first, the frequency histograms of simple difference (δ), and logarithmic difference (δLOG) between model estimates and in situ data confirm that the two input parameters (Zeu and PAR) approximate the Normal Distribution, and another two input parameters (aph and Kd(490)) approximate the logarithmic Normal Distribution. Second, the uncertainty in NPP estimates in the AbPM was assessed by using the Monte Carlo simulation. Here both the PB (percentage bias), defined as the ratio of ΔNPP to the retrieved NPP, and the CV (coefficient of variation), defined as the ratio of the standard deviation to the mean are used to indicate the uncertainty in the NPP brought by input parameter to AbPM model. The uncertainty related to magnitude is denoted by PB and the uncertainty related to scatter range is denoted by CV. Our investigations demonstrate that PB of NPP uncertainty brought by all parameters with an annual mean of 5.5% covered a range of –5%–15% for the global ocean. The PB uncertainty of AbPM model was mainly caused by aph; the PB of NPP uncertainty brought by aph had an annual mean of 4.1% for the global ocean. The CV brought by all the parameters with an annual mean of 105% covered a range of 98%–134% for global ocean. For the coastal zone of Antarctica with higher productivity, the PB and CV of NPP uncertainty brought by all parameters had annual means of 7.1% and 121%, respectively, which are significantly larger than those obtained in the global ocean. This study suggests that the NPPs estimated by AbPM model are more accurate than others, but the magnitude and scatter range of NPP errors brought by input parameter to AbPM model could not be neglected, especially in the coastal area with high productivity. So the improving accuracy of satellite retrieval of input parameters should be necessary. The investigation also confirmed that the SST related correction is effective for improving the model accuracy in low temperature condition.