2015 Vol. 34, No. 12

Display Method:
2015, Vol. 34, No. 12 Cover
2015, 34(12): .
2015, Vol. 34, No. 12 Content
2015, 34(12): .
Vol. 34 (2015) Contents
2015, 34(12): .
2015, Vol. 34, No. 12 Package
2015, 34(12): .
Progress of studies in China from July 2010 to May 2015 on the influence of the Kuroshio on neighboring Chinese seas and the Ryukyu Current
YUAN Yaochu, ZHU Xiaohua, ZHOU Feng
2015, 34(12): 1-10. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0771-z
The influence of the Kuroshio on neighboring Chinese seas and the Ryukyu Current is a very important subject of interest in physical oceanography. To deeply explain the research progress made by Chinese scientists from July 2010 to May 2015, the following three aspects are reviewed in this paper. The first concerns the Kuroshio intrusion into the South China Sea (SCS) and its circulation around the Luzon Strait. There are two very important points to be explained:the seasonal and inter-annual variation of the Kuroshio intrusion and the mechanisms of the Kuroshio intrusion and the influence of the Kuroshio on currents in the Luzon Strait and circulation in the northern SCS. The second concerns the variability of the Kuroshio and its interaction with the East China Sea (ECS). There are following four interesting topics to be explained:an overview of studies on the Kuroshio in the ECS; the Kuroshio intrusion into the ECS, water exchange, and dynamic impacts; the downstream increase of nutrient transport by the Kuroshio; and the application of satellite remote sensing on terrestrial material transport by the Kuroshio intrusion into the ECS. Third, the interaction between the Ryukyu Current and Kuroshio in the ECS are also discussed. Finally, the main results are summarized and areas of further study are simply discussed.
High-resolution circulation forecasting of the Maenggol Channel, south coast of Korea
CHOI Jinyong, JUN Kicheon, CHOI Youngkwang, CHO Kyoungho, KWON Jae-Il, PARK Jinsoon, PARK Kwangsoon
2015, 34(12): 11-18. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0774-9
The Maenggol Channel and Uldolmok Strait, located on the south-west coast of Korea, have notably strong and complex currents due to tidal effects and to local geological factors. In these areas, electric power has been generated using strong tidal currents, the speed of which is more than 3 m/s during spring tides. The region also provides a shortcut for navigation. These tidal conditions are therefore sometimes useful, but may also cause terrible accidents or severe economic damage, in the absence of accurate information regarding ocean conditions. In April 2014, the passenger ferry MV Sewol capsized in the Maenggol Channel, with 295 passengers killed and 9 still missing. While this was unquestionably a man-made disaster, strong currents were one of the contributing causes. It was also difficult to conduct scuba diving rescue operations given strong current speeds, and accurate prediction of the time when the tide would turn was thus critically needed. In this research, we used the high-resolution coastal circulation forecasting system of KOOS (Korea Operational Oceanographic System) for analysis and simulation of strong tidal currents in such areas with many small islands, using measurements and modeling from this research area. For accurate prediction of tidal currents, small grid size-modeling was needed, and in this study, we identified a suitable grid size that offers efficiency as well as accuracy.
Simulation of the extreme waves generated by typhoon Bolaven (1215) in the East China Sea and Yellow Sea
JUN Ki Cheon, JEONG Weon Mu, CHOI Jin Yong, PARK Kwang Soon, JUNG Kyung Tae, KIM Mee Kyung, CHAE Jang Won, QIAO Fangli
2015, 34(12): 19-28. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0779-4
Record-breaking high waves occurred during the passage of the typhoon Bolaven (1215) (TYB) in the East China Sea (ECS) and Yellow Sea (YS) although its intensity did not reach the level of a super typhoon. Winds and directional wave measurements were made using a range of in-situ instruments mounted on an ocean tower and buoys. In order to understand how such high waves with long duration occurred, analyses have been made through measurement and numerical simulations. TYB winds were generated using the TC96 typhoon wind model with the best track data calibrated with the measurements. And then the wind fields were blended with the reanalyzed synoptic-scale wind fields for a wave model. Wave fields were simulated using WAM4.5 with adjustment of Cd for gust of winds and bottom friction for the study area. Thus the accuracy of simulations is considerably enhanced, and the computed results are also in better agreement with measured data than before. It is found that the extremely high waves evolved as a result of the superposition of distant large swells and high wind seas generated by strong winds from the front/right quadrant of the typhoon track. As the typhoon moved at a speed a little slower than the dominant wave group velocity in a consistent direction for two days, the wave growth was significantly enhanced by strong wind input in an extended fetch and non-linear interaction.
Study on the current structure of the thermohaline front in the southeastern entrance of the Yellow Sea during winter
OH Kyung-Hee, LEE Seok, LIE Heung-Jae, JUNG Kyung Tae, QIAO Fangli
2015, 34(12): 29-36. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0763-z
A thermohaline front is located at the southeastern entrance of the Yellow Sea in winter, and it is generated by the intrusion of warm saline water into the Yellow Sea caused by a strong northerly wind. Recently, a westward transversal current traveling away from the west coast of Korea toward the open sea area along the front was reported. The westward transversal current is dominant in the surface layer during the temperature inversion period. The formation and structure of this current are examined using a numerical vertical ocean-slice model. When two different water masses meet, a front is formed and adjusted geostrophically. In this frontal zone, a horizontal pressure gradient flow by the vertically inclined isopycnal occurs under the thermal wind process in a baroclinic effect, and the cold fresh coastal water moves westward along the front in the upper layer. The barotropic effect across the front and the bottom friction effect strengthen the westward component of the velocity. The velocity of the bottom layer decreases remarkably in the increase of the bottom drag coefficient. This means that the bottom friction with the strong background tidal current causes a reduction in the current in the bottom layer.
A numerical investigation into the long-term behaviors of Fukushima-derived 137Cs in the ocean
ZHAO Chang, WANG Gang, QIAO Fangli, WANG Guansuo, JUNG Kyung-Tae, XIA Changshui
2015, 34(12): 37-43. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0775-8
The Fukushima nuclear accident in 2011 released large amounts of radionuclides, including 137Cs, into the Pacific Ocean. A quasi-global ocean radioactive transport model with horizontal grid spacing of 0.5°×0.5° and 21 vertical layers was thereafter established to study the long-term transport of the Fukushima-derived 137Cs in the ocean. The simulation shows that the plume of 137Cs would be rapidly transported eastward alongside the Kuroshio Current and its extensions. Contaminated waters with concentrations lower than 2 Bq/m3 would reach the west coast of North America 4 or 5 years after the accident. The 137Cs tends to be carried, despite its very low concentration, into the Indian and South Pacific Oceans by 2016 via various branches of ocean currents. Meanwhile, the 137Cs concentrations in the western part of the North Pacific Ocean decrease rapidly with time. Up to now the highly contaminated waters have remained in the upper 400 m, showing no evidence of significant penetration to deeper layers.
Horizontal distribution of Changjiang Diluted Water in summer inferred from total suspended sediment in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea
LEE Dong-Kyu, KWON Jae-Il, SON SeungHyun
2015, 34(12): 44-50. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0776-7
During the summer in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea, the resuspension of the bottom sediment is obstructed by strong stratification and, as a result, the concentration of total suspended sediment (TSS) can be used as an excellent tracer for Changjiang Diluted Water (CDW). To analyze the spatial and temporal variations of the CDW distribution, the monthly mean TSS from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) ocean color data are constructed and are converted to salinity using the relationship between salinity observed from AQUARIUS and TSS. The process produces the detailed horizontal distribution of salinity with very high resolution (1 km). From monthly mean salinity map from 2002 to 2012 in July and August, the expansion patterns of CDW are analyzed. The southerly wind in July and southeasterly wind in August transport the CDW eastward and northeastward, respectively. It is found that the yearly variation of the expansion of CDW toward the southern sea area of Korea is mostly due to the variation of southerly wind and the fluctuations of fresh water discharge into the Changjiang estuary show relatively little impact on the eastward extend of CDW. When 11-year mean (from 2002 to 2012) salinity map in August is compared with World Ocean Atlas 2013, it is revealed that wind in August strengthened six times from 1994 and it causes the expansion of CDW extended 150 km further eastward.
Parameter sensitivity study of the biogeochemical model in the China coastal seas
JI Xuanliang, LIU Guimei, GAO Shan, WANG Hui
2015, 34(12): 51-60. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0762-0
In order to develop a coupled basin scale model of ocean circulation and biogeochemical cycling, we present a biogeochemical model including 12 components to study the ecosystem in the China coastal seas (CCS). The formulation of phytoplankton mortality and zooplankton growth are modified according to biological characteristics of CCS.The four sensitivity biological parameters, zooplankton assimilation efficiency rate (ZooAE_N), zooplankton basal metabolism rate (ZooBM), maximum specific growth rate of zooplankton (μ20) and maximum chlorophyll to carbon ratio (Chl2C_m) are obtained in sensitivity experiments for the phytoplankton, and experiments about the parameter μ20, half-saturation for phytoplankton NO3 uptake (KNO3) and remineralization rate of small detritusN (SDeRRN) are conducted. The results demonstrate that the biogeochemical model is quite sensitive to the zooplankton grazing parameter when it ranges from 0.1 to 1.2 d-1. The KNO3 and SDeRRN also play an important role in determining the nitrogen cycle within certain ranges.The sensitive interval of KNO3 is from 0.1 to 1.5(mmol/m3)-1, and interval of SEdRRN is from 0.01 and 0.1 d-1. The observational data from September 1998 to July 2000 obtained at SEATS station are used to validate the performance of biological model after parameters optimization. The results show that the modified model has a good capacity to reveal the biological process features, and the sensitivity analysis can save computational resources greatly during the model simulation.
Assessment and regulation of ocean health based on ecosystem services:Case study in the Laizhou Bay, China
SHEN Chengcheng, ZHENG Wei, SHI Honghua, DING Dewen, WANG Zongling
2015, 34(12): 61-66. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0777-6
The ecosystem-based management of nearshore waters requires integrated assessment of ocean health and scientific guidance on artificial regulations to promote sustainable development. Quantitative approaches were developed in this paper to assess present and near-term ocean health based on ecosystem services. Results of the case study in the Laizhou Bay of China showed that the index score of ocean health was 0.7856 out of 1.0 at present and was expected to range from 0.5551 to 0.8041 in the near-term future depending on different intensities of artificial regulation of negative pressures. Specifically, the results of ocean health at present mainly indicated that cultural services and provisioning services performed essentially perfectly while supporting services and regulating services functioned less well. It can be concluded that this nearshore ecosystem would partially lose supporting and regulating services in the near-term future if the increasing pressures were not wellregulated but that all of these categories of ecosystem services could be slightly improved if the negative pressures were fully controlled. Additionally, it is recommended that publicity and education on ecosystem services especially on cultural services and regulating services should be further strengthened. The analytical process and resulting quantification provide flexible tools to guide future development of regulations so as to facilitate ecosystem-based management in the coastal zone.
The prediction on the 2015/16 El Niño event from the perspective of FIO-ESM
SONG Zhenya, SHU Qi, BAO Ying, YIN Xunqiang, QIAO Fangli
2015, 34(12): 67-71. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0787-4
Recently atmospheric and oceanic observations indicate the tropical Pacific is at the El Niño condition. However, it's not clear whether this El Niño event of this year is comparable to the very strong one of 1997/98 which brought huge influence on the whole world. In this study, based on the Ensemble Adjusted Kalman Filter (EAKF) assimilation scheme and First Institute of Oceanography-Earth System Model (FIO-ESM), the assimilation system is setup, which can provide reasonable initial conditions for prediction. And the hindcast results suggest the skill of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) prediction is comparable to other dynamical coupled models. Then the prediction for 2015/16 El Niño by using FIO-ESM is started from 1 November 2015. The ensemble results indicate that the 2015/16 El Niño will continue to be strong. By the end of 2015, the strongest strength is very like more than 2.0℃ and the ensemble mean strength is 2.34℃, which indicates 2015/16 El Niño event will be very strong but slightly less than that of 1997/98 El Niño event (2.40℃) calculated relative a climatology based on the years 1992-2014. The prediction results also suggest 2015/16 El Niño event will be a transition to ENSO-neutral level in the early spring (FMA) 2016, and then may transfer to La Niña in summer 2016.
Roles of initial ocean states on predicting the 2002/03 central Pacific El Niño
ZHENG Fei, WANG Hui, WAN Liying
2015, 34(12): 72-79. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0770-0
The 2002/03 El Niño event, a new type of El Niño with maximum warm anomaly occurring in the central equatorial Pacific, is known as central-Pacific (CP) El Niño. In this study, on the basis of an El Niño prediction system, roles of the initial ocean surface and subsurface states on predicting the 2002/03 CP El Niño event are investigated to determine conditions favorable for predicting El Niño growth and are isolated in three sets of hindcast experiments. The hindcast is initialized through assimilation of only the sea surface temperature (SST) observations to optimize the initial surface condition (Assim_SST), only the sea level (SL) data to update the initial subsurface state (Assim_SL), or both the SST and SL data (Assim_SST+SL). Results highlight that the hindcasts with three different initial states all can successfully predict the 2002/03 El Niño event one year in advance and that the Assim_SST+SL hindcast performs best. A comparison between the various sets of hindcast results further demonstrates that successful prediction is significantly affected by both of the initial surface and subsurface conditions, but in different developing phases of the 2002/03 El Niño event. The accurate initial surface state can easier trigger the prediction of the 2002/03 El Niño, whereas a more reasonable initial subsurface state can contribute to improving the prediction in the growth of the warm event.
Variability of sea surface height in the South China Sea and its relationship to Pacific oscillations
PEI Yuhua, ZHANG Rong-Hua, ZHANG Xiangming, JIANG Lianghong, WEI Yanzhou
2015, 34(12): 80-92. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0773-x
The spatio-temporal variability modes of the sea surface height in the South China Sea (SCS-SSH) are obtained using the Cyclostationary Empirical Orthogonal Function (CSEOF) method, and their relationships to the Pacific basin scale oscillations are examined. The first CSEOF mode of the SCS-SSH is a strongly phase-locked annual cycle that is modulated by a slowly varying principal component (PC); the strength of this annual cycle becomes reduced during El Niño events (at largest by 30% off in 1997/98) and enhanced during La Niña events. The second mode is a low frequency oscillation nearly on decadal time scale, with its spatial structure exhibiting an obscure month-dependence; the corresponding PC is highly correlated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) index. Five independent oscillations in the Pacific are isolated by using the independent component (IC) analysis (ICA) method, and their effects on the SCS-SSH are examined. It is revealed that the pure ENSO mode (which resembles the east Pacific ENSO) has little effect on the low frequency variability of the SCS-SSH while the ENSO reddening mode (which resembles the central Pacific ENSO) has clear effect. As the ENSO reddening mode is an important constituent of the PDO, this explains why the PDO is more important than ENSO in modulating the low frequency variability of SCS-SSH. Meridional saddle like oscillation mode, the Kuroshio extension warming mode, and the equatorial cooling mode are also successfully detected by the ICA, but they have little effect on the low frequency variability of the SCS-SSH. Further analyses suggest the Pacific oscillations are probably influencing the variability of the SCS-SSH in ways that are different from that of the sea surface temperature (SST) in the SCS.
Significant wave height estimation using azimuth cutoff of C-band RADARSAT-2 single-polarization SAR images
REN Lin, YANG Jingsong, ZHENG Gang, WANG Juan
2015, 34(12): 93-101. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0769-6
This paper proposes two simple models, look-up table (LUT) model and empirical model, to directly retrieve significant wave height (Hs) using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) azimuth cutoff (λc). Both models aim at C-band VV, HH, VH, and HV single-polarization SAR images. The LUT model relates Hs to λc, while the empirical model relates Hs to both λc and SAR range-to-velocity (β). The LUT model coefficients are derived by simulation under different sea states and observation conditions, which depend on incidence angle (θ), wave direction (dw), and β but are independent of polarization. The empirical model coefficients are obtained by fitting the collocated data, which only depend on polarization. To fit empirical model coefficients and validate the two models, C-band RADARSAT-2 fine quad-polarization (VV+HH+VH+HV) single-look complex (SLC) SAR images and collocated buoy data are collected. Retrieved Hs, using Yang model and the two models proposed in this paper from four kinds of polarization SAR data, are compared with buoy Hs. Results show that both LUT and empirical models have the capacity of retrieving Hs from C-band RADARSAT-2 co-polarization SAR data, while Yang model is not suitable for these kinds of SAR data. Moreover, the empirical model is also valid for cross-polarization SAR data showing clear ocean wave stripes.
Characterizing the influence of tide on the physico-chemical parameters and nutrient variability in the coastal surface water of the northern Bay of Bengal during the winter season
2015, 34(12): 102-111. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0785-6
The spatial distribution of physico-chemical parameters (sea surface temperature (SST), pH, sea surface salinity (SSS), dissolved oxygen (DO) and Secchi depth) along with filterable nutrients (dissolved inorganic nitrate (DIN), dissolved inorganic phosphate (DIP) and reactive silicate (DSi)) are measured in the winter months of November, December, January and February for four consecutive years from 2009-2010 to 2012-2013 on the shallow continental shelf (<20 m bathymetry) of the coastal waters (up to 18 km away from shoreline) of the northern Bay of Bengal (nBoB) during the highest high tide (HHT) and lowest low tide (LLT) hours for the first time. The variability of the coastal biogeochemical environment is assessed during the HHT and LLT hours and for this purpose, seawater samples are collected from seven different locations of a transect in the coastal region. Physicochemical parameters (except SST) show significant difference in magnitude during the HHT and LLT hours respectively. pH, SSS and DO are found to increase in the HHT hours and vice-versa. The data reveal that during the LLT hours, a relative increase of freshwater input in the nBoB can have elevated the nutrient concentration compared with that observed during the HHT hours. The ratio of nutrient concentration is found to deviate significantly from the Redfield ratio. The abundance of DIP is much higher compared with that of DIN and DSi. The anthropogenic sources of DIP from the upstream flow (especially the domestic effluent of several metropolises) can be mainly attributed behind such an observation. In order to characterize and establish the trend of such variation in such an important bio-climatic region, long-term and systematic ecosystem monitoring in the coastal water of the nBoB northern Bay of Bengal should be carried out throughout the year.
Geochemical variation of volcanic rocks from the South China Sea and neighboring land:Implication for magmatic process and mantle structure
YANG Shuying, FANG Nianqiao
2015, 34(12): 112-124. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0759-8
Geochemical study of Kon Tum (KT) plateau, Sanshui (SS) basin and Daimao (DM) seamount volcanic rocks provides new insight into magmatic processes and characteristics of the mantle source beneath the South China Sea (SCS) basin and its surroundings. Geological signature of basaltic lavas from KT, SS and DM indicate rather than a deep-rooted plume derived from the core-mantle boundary, a shallower mantle domain, such as subcontinental lithosphere mantle or asthenospheric mantle, is more likely to be the mantle source region beneath the SCS basin and its adjacent areas. The mantle source beneath the SCS basin has been shown to be more depleted relative to the source regions of the SS basin and the KT plateau, indicating that the magmatism in the SS basin has been interrupted due to the SCS spreading and then recovered in the KT plateau area. The mantle heterogeneity has been sampled and an enriched component that is geochemically comparable to EM2 endmember has been identified in the mantle source region of the SCS basin and its surroundings. This EM2 component was formed by the recycling of Mesozoic subducted proto-SCS slab along with terrigenous sediments.
Distribution and composition of authigenic minerals in surface sediments of the western Gulf of Thailand
WANG Kunshan, SHI Xuefa, QIAO Shuqing, KORNKANITNAN Narumol, KHOKIATTIWONG Somkiat
2015, 34(12): 125-136. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0772-y
Generation, morphology, and distribution of authigenic minerals directly reflect sedimentary environment and material sources. Surface sediments were collected from the western Gulf of Thailand during 2011-2012, and 159 samples were analyzed to determine detrital minerals. Authigenic minerals, including siderite, pyrite, and glauconite, are abundant whereas secondary minerals, such as chlorite and limonite, are distributed widely in the study area. Siderite has a maximum content of 19.98 g/kg and appears in three types from nearshore to continental shelf, showing the process of forming-maturity-oxidation. In this process, the MnO content in siderite decreases, but Fe2O3 and MgO content increase. Colorless or transparent siderite pellets are fresh grains generated within a short time and widely distributed throughout the region; high content appears in coastal area where river inputs are discharged. Translucent cemented double pellets appearing light yellow to red are mature grains; high content is observed in the central shelf. Red-brown opaque granular pellets are oxidized grains, which are concentrated in the eastern gulf. Pyrite is mostly distributed in the central continental shelf with an approximately north-south strip. Pyrite are mainly observed in foraminifera shell and distributed in clayey silt sediments, which is similar to that in the Yangtze River mouth and the Yellow Sea. The pyrite in the gulf is deduced from genetic types associated with sulfate reduction and organic matter decomposition. Majority of glauconite are granular with few laminar. Glauconite is concentrated in the northern and southern parts within the boundary of 9.5° to 10.5°N and is affected by river input diffusion. The distribution of glauconite is closely correlated with that of chlorite and plagioclase, indicating that glauconite is possibly derived from altered products of chlorite and plagioclase. The K2O content of glauconite is low or absent, indicating its short formation time.
The spatial multiscale variability of heavy metals based on factorial kriging analysis:A case study in the northeastern Beibu Gulf
ZHAO Jianru, CHU Fengyou, JIN Xianglong, WU Qingsong, YANG Kehong, GE Qian, JIN Lu
2015, 34(12): 137-146. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0768-7
Factorial kriging analysis is applied to the research on the spatial multiscale variability of heavy metals in submarine. It is used to analyze the multiscale spatial structures of seven heavy metals, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, As and Cd in the surface sediment from the northeastern of Beibu Gulf, identify and separate spatial variations at different scales of heavy metals, and discuss the provenance of heavy metals and the influencing factors. The results show that the existence of three-scale spatial variations those consist of nugget effect, a spherical structure with range of 30 km (short-range scale) and a spherical structure with range of 140 km (long-range scale) in the linear model of coregionalization fitted. The spatial distribution features of seven heavy metals at short-range scale reflect "spot-like" or "stripe-like" local-scale spatial variations; the spatial distribution features of the seven heavy metals at long-range scale represent "slice-like" regional-scale spatial variations. At local scale, Zn, Cr, Ni, Cu, Pb and Cd are derived primarily from parent materials of Hainan Island, Leizhou Peninsula and Guangxi land, whose spatial distribution characteristics are controlled by granularity of sediments, while As is influenced dominantly by human pollution components from Hainan Island and Leizhou Peninsula. At regional scale, Zn, Cr, Ni and Cu originate primarily from parent rock materials of Leizhou Peninsula and Hainan Island, secondly from Guangxi land; As originated primarily from parent rock materials from Hainan Island, secondly from Leizhou Peninsula and Guangxi land. These metals are transported and migrated with sediments dominated by the anticlockwise circulation of Beibu Gulf year-round, deposited in "convergence center", forming the whole sedimentary pattern in direction of NWW-NNW at regional scale. The difference in distribution type between As and other metals at regional scale is mainly due to their different geochemical behavior.
Source identification of aluminum in surface sediments of the Yellow Sea off the Shandong Peninsula
XU Gang, LIU Jian, PEI Shaofeng, KONG Xianghuai, HU Gang, GAO Maosheng
2015, 34(12): 147-153. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0766-9
Surface sediment samples in the near shore area of the north Shandong Peninsula are collected for grain size and element analyses. The results indicate that the surface sediments in the study area are primarily composed of the silt-sized components similar to the Huanghe River. The total concentration of aluminum varies from 5.57% to 7.37% (average (6.33±0.40)%), and its spatial distribution is mainly controlled by the grain size. Correlations between the ratio of aluminum to titanium concentration and aluminum concentration, titanium concentration and the mean grain size indicate that aluminum in the near shore surface sediments is affected majorly by the terrigenous source, and partially by the anthropogenic source. The ratios of aluminum to titanium concentrations are larger than the background value of loess matter at some stations due to the existence of excess aluminum associated with human activities. Thus, the sources of aluminum should be identified firstly when aluminum is used as an index of terrigenous matter even in the near shore area dominated by terrigenous deposits.
Optimization of stratification scheme for a fishery-independent survey with multiple objectives
XU Binduo, REN Yiping, CHEN Yong, XUE Ying, ZHANG Chongliang, WAN Rong
2015, 34(12): 154-169. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0739-z
Fishery-independent surveys are often used for collecting high quality biological and ecological data to support fisheries management. A careful optimization of fishery-independent survey design is necessary to improve the precision of survey estimates with cost-effective sampling efforts. We developed a simulation approach to evaluate and optimize the stratification scheme for a fishery-independent survey with multiple goals including estimation of abundance indices of individual species and species diversity indices. We compared the performances of the sampling designs with different stratification schemes for different goals over different months. Gains in precision of survey estimates from the stratification schemes were acquired compared to simple random sampling design for most indices. The stratification scheme with five strata performed the best. This study showed that the loss of precision of survey estimates due to the reduction of sampling efforts could be compensated by improved stratification schemes, which would reduce the cost and negative impacts of survey trawling on those species with low abundance in the fishery-independent survey. This study also suggests that optimization of a survey design differed with different survey objectives. A post-survey analysis can improve the stratification scheme of fishery-independent survey designs.
Depuration of paralytic shellfish toxins in Japanese scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis) in natural environment
SONG Tao, LIU Lei, SONG Xiaoping, LIANG Yubo, ZHUANG Guohong
2015, 34(12): 170-174. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0764-y
To study the paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) depuration in Japanese scallop Patinopecten yessoensis in natural environment, Japanese scallops naturally contaminated with paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins in the Dayao Bay in the northern Huanghai Sea are transited to Qipanmo waters in the Bohai Sea of no reported PSTs incidents. The levels and profile of PSTs during 30-day depuration are detected by the high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD). The results show that the toxicity of the PSTs in soft tissues decreases to a relatively low level at Day 9. Moreover, the depurated ratio at the early stage of the PSTs depuration is higher than that at the later stage. The toxicity analysis of dissected organs reveals that the digestive gland is the most contaminated PSTs part, which is of important implication for the human health and scallop aquiculture. The mortality of Japanese scallops during PSTs depuration experiment is relevant to PSTs level in the soft tissue.
Analysis of DNA methylation in different tissues of Fenneropenaeus chinensis from the wild population and Huanghai No. 1
HE Yuying, DU Ying, LI Jian, LIU Ping, WANG Qingyin, LI Zhaoxia
2015, 34(12): 175-180. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0765-x
DNA methylation plays an important role in the regulation of gene expression during biological development and tissue differentiation in eukaryotes. A methylation sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP) including digestion, pre-selective amplification and selective amplification was optimized to compare the levels of DNA cytosine methylation at CCGG sites in muscle, gill and hemocyte from the wild populations and the selective breeding of Huanghai No. 1 of Fenneropenaeus chinensis, respectively. Significant differences in cytosine methylation levels among three tissues in two populations were detected. The average DNA methylation ratios in muscle, gill and hemocyte of the wild population were 23.1%, 22.3% and 19.7%, while those were 21.4%, 19.6%, and 18.9% in Huanghai No. 1, respectively. The DNA methylation levels of gill from the two populations were highly significant (P <0.01), the difference of muscle was significant (P <0.05), while in hemocyte, there were no significant differences (P >0.05). DNA polymorphic methylation of gill and hemocyte between the wild population and Huanghai No. 1 varies to some extent, while those of muscle kept in a balanced degree. Furthermore, polymorphic methylation was associated with demethylation and methylation of CCGG loci.