2021 Vol. 40, No. 6

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2021, 40(6): .
2021-6 Contents
2021, (6): 1-2.
Marine Chemistry
Using triple oxygen isotopes and oxygen-argon ratio to quantify ecosystem production in the mixed layer of northern South China Sea slope region
Zhuoyi Zhu, Jun Wang, Guiling Zhang, Sumei Liu, Shan Zheng, Xiaoxia Sun, Dongfeng Xu, Meng Zhou
2021, 40(6): 1-15. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1846-7
Quantifying the gross and net production is an essential component of carbon cycling and marine ecosystem studies. Triple oxygen isotope measurements and the O2/Ar ratio are powerful indices in quantifying the gross primary production and net community production of the mixed layer zone, respectively. Although there is a substantial advantage in refining the gas exchange term and water column vertical mixing calibration, application of mixed layer depth history to the gas exchange term and its contribution to reducing indices error are unclear. Therefore, two cruises were conducted in the slope regions of the northern South China Sea in October 2014 (autumn) and June 2015 (spring). Discrete water samples at Station L07 in the upper 150 m depth were collected for the determination of δ17O, δ18O, and the O2/Ar ratio of dissolved gases. Gross oxygen production (GOP) was estimated using the triple oxygen isotopes of the dissolved O2, and net oxygen production (NOP) was calculated using O2/Ar ratio and O2 concentration. The vertical mixing effect in NOP was calibrated via a N2O based approach. GOP for autumn and spring was (169±23) mmol/(m2·d) (by O2) and (189±26) mmol/(m2·d) (by O2), respectively. While NOP was 1.5 mmol/(m2·d) (by O2) in autumn and 8.2 mmol/(m2·d) (by O2) in spring. Application of mixed layer depth history in the gas flux parametrization reduced up to 9.5% error in the GOP and NOP estimations. A comparison with an independent O2 budget calculation in the diel observation indicated a 26% overestimation in the current GOP, likely due to the vertical mixing effect. Both GOP and NOP in June were higher than those in October. Potential explanations for this include the occurrence of an eddy process in June, which may have exerted a submesoscale upwelling at the sampling station, and also the markedly higher terrestrial impact in June.
Utilizing 234Th/238U disequilibrium to constrain particle dynamics in hydrothermal plumes in the Southwest Indian Ocean
Weifeng Yang, Xinxing Zhang, Min Chen, Ziming Fang, Yusheng Qiu
2021, 40(6): 16-25. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1786-2
Metal-enriched minerals have been widely observed near hydrothermal vent fields. However, the dynamics of particulate metals influenced by hydrothermal activities is poorly constrained. Here, radioactive 234Th in both dissolved and particulate phases were used to examine the kinetics of particle-reactive metal adsorption, removal, and residence in a newly found hydrothermal plume over the Southwest Indian Ridge. The results showed a relatively low value on 234Th/238U ratios (i.e., 0.73–0.88) compared to the deep oceans, indicating an enhanced adsorption of particle-reactive metals onto particulate matter in the plume. Based on the 234Th-238U disequilibria, the adsorption and sinking rate constants of 234Th averaged (0.009±0.001) d–1 and (0.113±0.024) d–1 in the hydrothermal plume, corresponding to the residence times of (115±19) d and (16±5) d for dissolved and particulate 234Th, respectively. This timescale allows vent-discharged particle-reactive metals to disperse hundreds to thousands of miles away. Thus, hydrothermal activities might influence the metal distribution in deep ocean over a very large scope. Also, a high sinking flux of (36.2±5.4) Bq/(m2·d) for 234Th was observed for the plume, suggesting an enrichment of metal in particles deposited close to the vent. The enhancement of particle sinking could also benefit the transport of organic carbon and nitrogen and fuel the benthic ecosystems under the plume regimes. Thus, hydrothermal plumes may have an impact on both the elemental geochemistry and/or ecosystem to the deep oceans interior than previous expectation.
Environmental factors affecting regional differences and decadal variations in the buried flux of marine organic carbon in eastern shelf sea areas of China
Qian Yang, Keming Qu, Shu Yang, Yao Sun, Yan Zhang, Mingying Zhou
2021, 40(6): 26-34. doi: 10.1007/s13131-020-1601-5
To characterize environmental factors controlling decadal-scale variations in the buried flux of marine organic carbon (\begin{document}${\rm{BF}}_{\rm{C_m}} $\end{document}) in the eastern shelf sea areas of China (ECSS), four well preserved sediment cores collected from the central Yellow Sea mud (CYSM) area, the Yellow Sea Coastal Current (YSCC) area and the Changjiang River Estuary (CRE) were investigated in this study. In the CYSM, variations in \begin{document}${\rm{BF}}_{\rm{C_m}} $\end{document} were found to be dependent on variations in primary productivity and to exhibit a cyclical trend possibly related to fluctuations in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and the East Asian winter monsoon index (EAWM). In the YSCC, \begin{document}${\rm{BF}}_{\rm{C_m}} $\end{document} likewise depends on primary productivity. Prior to the 1950s, variations in \begin{document}${\rm{BF}}_{\rm{C_m}} $\end{document} were similar to that of the EAWM. After the 1950s, \begin{document}${\rm{BF}}_{\rm{C_m}} $\end{document} increased rapidly and exhibited maximum values in the surface layer, consistent with an increase in primary productivity caused by the input of terrestrial nutrients associated with China’s economic development. In the CRE, variations in \begin{document}${\rm{BF}}_{\rm{C_m}} $\end{document} were affected by several competing factors making it difficult to identify clear relationships between variations in \begin{document}${\rm{BF}}_{\rm{C_m}} $\end{document} and primary productivity. In contrast, long-term variability in \begin{document}${\rm{BF}}_{\rm{C_m}} $\end{document} is more similar to changes in the Changjiang River sediment load. Thus, it is speculated that the construction of dams along the Changjiang River may be the main cause of variations in \begin{document}${\rm{BF}}_{\rm{C_m}} $\end{document} in this area. Given the disproportionate effects of human activities on marine environments and decadal variations in \begin{document}${\rm{BF}}_{\rm{C_m}} $\end{document} in the ECSS, careful attention should be paid to regional differences in organic carbon preservation and environmental changes lest estimates of these values be made imprecise or inaccurate.
Marine Biology
Characterization of ghrelin mRNA expression in fasting Larimichthys crocea juveniles
Feng Liu, Xiaokang Lv, Tianqi Chu, Mengjie Wang, Wei Zhan, Bao Lou
2021, 40(6): 35-40. doi: 10.1007/s13131-020-1692-z
Larimichthys crocea is a marine fish species cultured in China. Short-term starvation is often applied to improve the quality of cultured L. crocea, and the expression of ghrelin in tissues of stomach, muscle, brain, intestines, liver, and kidney, involved in starvation response, under starvation conditions were studied to understand the effect of starvation on the expression of ghrelin in L. crocea juveniles. The ghrelin expression was tissue-specific, and expression was significantly higher in the stomach compared to other tissues (P<0.01). Additionally, ghrelin expression in different tissues changed along with prolongation of fasting. In the stomach, ghrelin expression levels increased gradually at the beginning of the fast, and then declined after eight days of fasting. Gene expression in the brain and intestines increased at the beginning of the fast, and then decreased with longer fasting time. Interestingly, ghrelin expression declined at the beginning of the fast, then increased with longer fasting in the kidneys and muscles. These results suggest that ghrelin is involved in starvation response in L. crocea juveniles. This study provids insights into ghrelin function and an important reference for the development of reasonable feeding strategies for L. crocea juveniles.
Parentage determination of black sea bream (Acanthopagrus schlegelii) for stock enhancement: effectiveness and loss of genetic variation
Binbin Shan, Yan Liu, Na Song, Changping Yang, Shengnan Liu, Tianxiang Gao, Dianrong Sun
2021, 40(6): 41-49. doi: 10.1007/s13131-020-1697-7
The stock enhancement programs for black sea bream Acanthopagrus schlegelii have been conducted in China for a few years. However, little information has been reported concerning the effectiveness and genetic effect of black sea bream stock enhancement. In order to detect the contribution of released individuals in Zhujiang River Estuary (ZRE) and Daya Bay (DB), six microsatellite markers were used to identify the hatchery-released individuals. In addition, this pedigree of hatchery populations (broodfish and hatchery-released offspring) was traced to detect the number of effective parents (Ne), the inbreeding coefficient and the decrease of genetic variability in the reproduction. The pedigree reconstruction showed that at least 69 (out of 93) broodfish had offspring. The estimated Ne was 54.8, consequently the inbreeding coefficient was 0.91%. The genetic diversity of hatchery-released offspring was lower than that in that of broodfish (heterozygosity alleles, 0.727–0.774), some alleles (number of alleles, 61–69) and genetic variance were lost during reproduction. It was observed that wild samples had higher levels of genetic diversity compared with hatchery populations as well as recaptured samples in releasing area. A total of 128 hatchery-released black sea bream were identified among 487 recaptured samples in ZRE, while a total of 15 samples were identified among 96 samples in DB. In summary, there was a high survival of released fish. Nevertheless, the results provided evidence to consider a loss of genetic variation in hatchery-released stock and a negative genetic effect of the stock enhancement.
Identification of a chitinase from the hepatopancreas of Chinese black sleeper (Bostrychus sinensis)
Yulei Chen, Zhipeng Tao, Minghui Zhang, Lechang Sun, Guangming Liu, Minjie Cao
2021, 40(6): 50-60. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1781-7
Chinese black sleeper (Bostrychus sinensis) is a fish that lives both in seawater and freshwater, feeds on crustaceans, aquatic insects and occasionally shellfish. The existence of digestive enzyme in viscera to act on chitinous exoskeleton of the prey is of interest. In this study, a chitinase was purified to homogeneity using ammonium sulfate precipitation, DEAE-Sephacel ion exchange, Sephacryl S-200 HR and Superdex 200 gel filtration columns. The purified protein presents a molecular mass of 58 kDa as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and results in a single band on native PAGE. According to peptide mass fingerprinting, two peptides containing a total of 20 amino acid residues, were 95% identical to a chitinase from yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and 100% identical to the chitinase from greater amberjack (Seriola dumerili). The purified chitinase showed optimum activity at pH 6.0, and was stable at acidic conditions and temperature below 55°C. The enzymatic activity was quite stable in the presence of NaCl, even at 1 mol/L . The chitinase was capable of degrading chitosan into low molecular mass chitooligosaccharides (COS) with sizes in a range of 200–700 Da, and the circular dichroism profile of the COS greatly differed from native chitosan. Full-length cDNA encoding the present chitinase was cloned and the transcript levels of chitinase in various tissues were determined by quantitative real-time PCR. The results showed that the transcript level of chitinase was highest in esophagus and hepatopancreas.
Antimicrobial peptide hepcidin contributes to host defense of Centropristis striata against Vibrio harveyi challenge
Xiaowan Ma, Ying Qiao, Yanxiang Shao, Chao Chen
2021, 40(6): 61-66. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1776-4
Hepcidins are small cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides that play a vital role in immunity against pathogen invasion. Here, a hepcidin (Cshep) from Centropristis striata was described, which is considered as a valuable aquaculture marine species in China. The open reading frame consisted of 273 bp. Eight conserved cysteine residues were identified. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Cshep had a relatively close relationship with the hepcidin from Epinephelus moara. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that Cshep was highly expressed in liver and significantly up-regulated when challenged with Vibrio harveyi. In addition, the synthetic Cshep peptide had a high antimicrobial activity against V. harveyi, but low against other pathogenic bacteria tested in this study. The killing kinetics analysis revealed that Cshep had a fast bactericidal effect on V. harveyi. These results suggested that Cshep may be involved in the immune response of C. striata against V. harveyi infection.
Implementing geostatistical analysis to study spatio-temporal distribution patterns of swimming crabs (Portunus trituberculatus)
Wenbin Zhu, Kaner Lu, Zhanhui Lu, Qian Dai, Zhenghua Li, Yongdong Zhou, Siqi Huang, Haichen Zhu, Guocheng Cui
2021, 40(6): 67-74. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1788-0
This study attempted to compare the performance of local polynomial interpolation, inverse distance weighted interpolation, and ordinary kriging in studying distribution patterns of swimming crabs. Cross-validation was used to select the optimum method to get distribution results, and kriging was used for making spatial variability analysis. Data were collected from 87 sampling stations in November of 2015 (autumn) and February (winter), May (spring) and August (summer) of 2016. Results indicate that swimming crabs widely distributed in autumn and summer: in the summer, they were more spatially independent, and resources in each sampling station varied a lot; in the winter and spring, the abundance of crabs was much lower, but the individual crab size was bigger, and they showed the patchy and more concentrative distribution pattern, which means they were more spatially dependent. Distribution patterns were in accordance with ecological migration features of swimming crabs, which were affected by the changing marine environment. This study could infer that it is applicable to study crab fishery or even other crustacean species using geostatistical analysis. It not only helps practitioners have a better understanding of how swimming crabs migrate from season to season, but also assists researchers in carrying out a more comprehensive assessment of the fishery. Therefore, it may facilitate advancing the implementation in the pilot quota management program of swimming crabs in northern Zhejiang fishing grounds.
The behavioral and antioxidant response of the bivalve Gomphina veneriformis to sediment burial effect
Xiaojing Li, Linlin Chen, Zhengquan Zhou, Baoquan Li, Xin Liu
2021, 40(6): 75-82. doi: 10.1007/s13131-020-1690-1
A laboratory-based microcosm experiment was carried out to examine both the behavioral and antioxidant response of the clam Gomphina veneriformis under the conditions of 3 types of burial material (sand, silt, silt-sand mixture) with 3 burial depths (5 cm, 15 cm, 30 cm). The concentration of dissolved oxygen decreased significantly after 3 d of burial in all experimental groups. In silt and sand-silt mixture groups, the interstitial water quality became worsened with lower pH, and higher \begin{document}$ {\rm {NH}}_4^+$\end{document}-N concentration, where clam mortality occurred simultaneously. However, clam samples in all sand groups and 5 cm, 15 cm sand-silt mixture groups survived well for 8 d. Obviously fewer individuals left in the bottom sand in the 15 cm, 30 cm silt groups and 30 cm sand-silt mixture groups than in the 5 cm groups. Therefore, it suggests that adding silt and increasing burial depth could stimulate the vertical movement of organisms and cause lethal effects. It was found that the burial depth was the key factor that influenced the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). The SOD and CAT activities in the gills and hepatopancreases of organisms both showed significant up-regulation in 30 cm burial depth after buried for 8 d. Higher enzyme activities were found in gills than in hepatopancreases, which indicated that the gills of the bivalve G. veneriformis were more susceptible to burial effects than hepatopancreases. Overall, this study shows that sediment burial could cause effects on the biological behavior and antioxidant enzyme activities.
Preliminary study on community structures of meiofauna in the middle and eastern Chukchi Sea
Dingyong Huang, Jianjia Wang, Qianhui Zeng, Jiaguang Xiao, Peng Tian, Sujing Fu, Feng Guo, Wentao Niu
2021, 40(6): 83-91. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1777-3
Sediment core samples were collected from 17 stations in the middle and eastern Chukchi Sea during the sixth Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition (CHINARE-Arctic) in summer 2014. The samples were analyzed for composition, abundance, biomass, vertical distribution, size spectra, and ecological indexes of meiofauna. A total of 14 meiofauna taxa were detected, and the free-living marine nematodes comprised the most dominant taxon, accounting for 97.21% of the average abundance. The abundance and biomass of meiofauna were within ranges of (218.12±85.83)–(7 239.38±1 557.15) ind./(10 cm2) and (130.28±52.17)–(3 309.56±1 751.80) μg/(10 cm2), with average values of (2 391.90±1 966.19) ind./(10 cm2) and (1 549.73±2 042.85) μg/(10 cm2) (according to dry weight) respectively. Furthermore, 91.26% of the individuals were distributed in the top layer of 0–5 cm of surface sediment, and 90.84% had sizes of 32–250 μm. Group diversity index of meiofauna in the survey area was low, and the variation of abundance was the main difference in meiofauna communities among all stations. Abundance and biomass of meiofauna were not significantly correlated with environmental factors except concentration of nutrient Si in bottom seawater. Abundance of meiofauna in shallow water of marginal seas in the Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean is likely at a same level and higher than that in most of China sea areas, suggesting that the shallow water of the summer Chukchi Sea is a continental shelf area with rich resources of meiofauna. The Chukchi Sea is important for studying the ecosystem of the Arctic Ocean and environmental responses. However, studies on meiofauna in the Chukchi Sea are still not enough, and in the future, natural and human disturbances may increase due to global warming, the Arctic channel opening, and other factors. Thus, more studies on meiofauna should be required, in order to know more about how the Arctic benthic community would alter.
The distribution of phytoplankton size and major influencing factors in the surface waters near the northern end of the Antarctic Peninsula
Lu Liu, Mingzhu Fu, Kaiming Sun, Qinzeng Xu, Zongjun Xu, Xuelei Zhang, Zongling Wang
2021, 40(6): 92-99. doi: 10.1007/s13131-020-1611-3
The waters near the Antarctic Peninsula have always been a study hot spot because of their variable and unique oceanographic conditions. To determine the distribution and possible influencing factors on phytoplankton size and abundance near the Antarctic Peninsula, a large-scale survey was conducted during the austral summer of 2018. Samples were collected in 27 stations located in the Drake Passage (DP), South Shetland Islands (SSI), and South Orkney Islands (SOI). Phytoplankton communities were described using chlorophyll a (Chl a), flow cytometry and light microscopy to cover a size range from pico- to microphytoplankton. Nanophytoplankton, especially small nanophytoplankton (2−6 μm) with abundance ranging from 0.66 ×103 cells/mL to 8.46 ×103 cells/mL, was predominant throughout the study area. Among different regions, there was an obvious size shift. The proportion of picophytoplankton near the Elephant Island (EI) and DP was higher than other regions, and larger cells were found mainly in east of SOI. The distribution of phytoplankton abundance detected by flow cytometry was not completely consistent with Chl a concentrations due to the contribution of larger cells to Chl a. Possible influencing factors on the phytoplankton size distribution were discussed. The properties of water masses such as temperature and salinity can influence the phytoplankton size distribution. Correlation analysis revealed that only picophytoplankton is significantly correlated with salinity. Light and Fe availability might affect phytoplankton abundance and size distribution especially near the waters of SSI and EI in this study. It was also speculated that the abundance of cryptophytes is possibly related to ice melting.
Ecological thresholds of phytoplankton community across environmental gradients in the harmful algal blooms-frequently-occurring, subtropical coastal waters, East China Sea
Ran Ye, Chunying Ge, Qiong Wang, Qing Xu, Guofeng Xu, Yongkang Yan, Mingli Qin, Yanhong Cai, Yuejun Fei
2021, 40(6): 100-110. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1782-6
Phytoplankton communities can response immediately and directly to environmental changes, and thus have been applied as reliable biotic indicators in aquatic systems. This study provided insights into the relationships concerning ecological thresholds of phytoplankton communities and individual taxon in response to environmental changes in coastal waters of northern Zhejiang Province, East China Sea. Results demonstrated that there existed seasonal variations of phytoplankton community ecological thresholds of which spring being higher than those in summer. As for individual species, Prorocentrum donghaiense and Noctiluca scintillans were identified as the most tolerant and sensitive indicator species in spring and summer, respectively. They exhibited strong indications in response to environmental changes. These findings highlighted that phytoplankton community structure in this region was stable when environmental gradients were below the thresholds of sensitive species, whereas potential harmful algal blooms may occur when environmental gradients exceeded the thresholds of tolerant species.
Living coccolithophores in the western Pacific Ocean with mesoscale eddies
Danyue Huang, Haijiao Liu, Jun Sun, Yuqiu Wei, Liuyang Li, Guicheng Zhang, Laxman Pujari
2021, 40(6): 111-128. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1780-8
Living coccolithophores (LCs) are regarded as a group of calcifiers and play important roles in global carbon cycle. This study used microscopic observations of LCs in the western Pacific Ocean to investigate their community structure and biodiversity, especially to test whether local physical traits (mesoscale eddies) could explain their biogeographic distributions during autumn of 2017. The coccolithophore calcite inventory based on carbon-volume transformation was estimated in this study. A total of 28 taxa of coccospheres and 19 types of coccoliths were identified from 161 samples. Gephyrocapsa oceanica was the most predominant species in all the coccolithophore community, followed by Florisphaera profunda, Emiliania huxleyi, Umbilicosphaera sibogae, Gladiolithus flabellatus and Umbellosphaera tenuis. The abundance of coccospheres and coccoliths ranged from 0 to 26.8×103 cells/L and from 0 to 138.5×103 coccoliths/L, averaged at 4.2×103 cells/L and 10.9×103 coccoliths/L, respectively. This study indicated that coccolithophore community in the survey area can be clustered into four groups. Three ecological niches of coccolithophores were characterized by their vertical profiles and multivariate statistical analysis. Coccolithophore abundance and species composition were remarkably different among warm-eddy region, G. oceanica dominated warm-eddy region, while F. profunda dominated warm-eddy and none-eddy region. The average values of estimated particulate inorganic carbon, particulate organic carbon were 0.197 μg/L and 0.140 μg/L, respectively. The current field study widened the dataset of coccolithophores in western Pacific Ocean.
News and Views
The first near real-time inverted echo sounder observation in the South China Sea
Ruixiang Zhao, Xiaohua Zhu, Chuanzheng Zhang, Hua Zheng
2021, 40(6): 129-130. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1875-2